Mountain Healing

In 1776, while the Declaration of Independence was being drafted, the great French botanist Andre Michaux stood atop North Carolina’s Grandfather Mountain and sang the French national anthem. It was a moment that represented the culmination of years of exploration into the magnificent variety of plants that flourish in the southern Appalachians — a concentration of flora unequaled on the North American continent or even in the whole of Europe.

As significant as was the work of Michaux, Native American tribes such as the Cherokee and the Catawba had been roaming the lush hillsides and gorges for centuries before his time, discovering a multitude of uses for these plants — one of the most significant being medicinal. The region is a veritable outdoor pharmacy of medicinal plants, which were not only part of the recipes of yesterday’s tribal medicine men, but continue to occupy a place in today’s pharmacopoeias. In fact, so important are the botanical sources of modern medicines that environmental scientist G. Tyler Miller has estimated that 40 percent of all the medicine on the shelves of today’s drugstores have plant origins.

While any attempt at a complete listing of known medicinal plants of the southern Appalachians might require volumes, a brief walk along their paths will, I hope, serve to illustrate the enormous impact the area has had on modern medical practice.

Let’s begin with a heart medication. A member of the figwort family, growing 2 to 5 feet in height, is the purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea). With lance-shaped to oval leaves, these spires of thimble-like flowers — from white to pinkish lavender to red bloom from June to September. This beautiful plant is the source of digitalis, a cardiac stimulant extracted from the leaves that has kept millions of heart patients alive.

Foxglove is among the loveliest, most famous, most important and most dangerous of medicinal plants. Used improperly, it is as likely to stop a heart as it is to keep it going.

Its usefulness was first discovered in 1775 by the English physician William Withering. He had heard of an old woman who practiced folk medicine with herbs gathered from the countryside. A patient afflicted with excessive fluid retention caused by congestive heart failure, who Withering expected to die, was cured by this healer. From this woman’s bag of weeds, Withering identified foxglove as the key element in treating swelling or edema associated with congestive heart failure. The paper he published in 1785 to inform other physicians of his findings is a classic of medical literature.

From heart medicine we move to what some have called the “Prozac of Europe.” St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) is native to Europe but grows throughout the eastern United States, including the southern highlands. An erect perennial shrub with bright yellow flowers from June through September, it has found extensive use as a treatment for depression in European medical practice. It is beginning to enjoy increased usage in the United States; however, caution should be exercised in its use since St. John’s wort contains hypericin, a photosensitory substance that reacts with light to cause skin burns in some people.

A traditional astringent (skin cleaner) and ingredient in numerous other pharmaceutical products is witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). It is a bush of the southern mountains that surprises us by blooming in autumn rather than spring, putting on a colorful display of bright yellow flowers that grow in feathery clusters. The name, witch hazel, developed from its reputed properties as a divining rod; folklore tells of the plant’s tendency to bend toward the Earth when held over underground water.

Witch hazel is extremely important commercially. The extract made by distilling the bark and leaves in alcohol has been used by pharmacists for more than a century. Bottles on the shelves of drugstores worldwide have labels recommending use of the extract for bruises, insect bites, sun burn, poison ivy rash and as an aftershave lotion.

Still another abundant medicinal plant of southern Appalachia is the mayapple, known botanically as Podophyllum peltatum. These plants usually grow in clusters with umbrella-like leaves, a white inconspicuous flower, and a small greenish yellow fruit, whose sweet taste makes it ideal for jams, jellies and preserves. A medicinal substance called podophyllum is obtained from the dried powdered root and, compounded with tincture of benzoin, is used as a caustic for the removal of warts and other papillomas.

During the warm months of August and September, when little else blooms in the fields and hillsides, the light blue flowers of Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata) grace the landscape. The stems are yellow to purplish, quite hairy, and branched about midway. Its medicinal substance is an alkaloid called lobeline, which is derived from the leaves and tops of the plant, which, when dried to a powder, are greenish-yellow in color. Lobeline is used as a respiratory stimulant and for the treatment of spasmodic bronchitis and chronic emphysema. Its popular name comes from the fact that American Indians once smoked its leaves to relieve asthma and other ailments. In recent years, lobeline has also found use as an ingredient in preparations designed to help people curb the smoking habit.

Continuing our walk along the paths of the southern Appalachians, we see brilliant splashes of pumpkin-orange flowers signifying the presence of butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa). The name is appropriate because monarchs, swallowtails and other butterflies are especially attracted to this member of the milkweed family when it is in bloom. Although no longer used in modern medicine because of the highly toxic glycosides in its roots, butterfly weed was long used by Native Americans, who powdered the roots and mixed them into a paste to spread on sores, as well as brewed its leaves to induce perspiration and expectoration in people with severe respiratory ailments such as pleurisy. Hence one of its alternative names: pleurisy root.

In early spring in the moist rich recesses of Appalachian forests, the smooth bluish stem and large single unfolding leaf of the blue cohosh plant (Caulophyllum thalictroides) stand out vividly against the surrounding bareness. As the plant grows, it blends in with the rest of the forest until late summer, when deep blue berries (which are actually seeds) attract the eye. Indian tribes used them to relieve rheumatism, colic, and menstrual cramps. Today, herbalists continue to use the roots to treat rheumatism.

By midsummer, fields and roads of the southern highlands are crowded with intricately patterned flat flower clusters of Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota), a member of the carrot family. Through the years, extracts from this widely distributed biennial were used medicinally as diuretics and to dissolve kidney stones. The seeds were eaten to eliminate intestinal worms and gas.

While extracts of Queen Anne’s lace are not generally used by today’s herbalist as a diuretic, research has confirmed their effectiveness in dispelling intestinal gas. The wild root is also rich in vitamin A, but care should be taken not to ingest it in excessive amounts. (Too much vitamin A can be harmful to your health.)

Another plant which is native to eastern North America, including the southern Appalachians, is the Oswego tea plant (Monarda didyma), sometimes also called bee balm. The name comes from the use of its aromatic leaves by the Oswego Indians of western New York and also the Shakers, who thought the tea to be effective in treating colds and sore throats. Still other settlers steamed the plant and inhaled the fumes to clear sinuses. Although medicinal use of the plant is no longer widespread, the aromatic oil of Oswego tea continues to be used in the perfume industry.

No trip through the southern Appalachians would be complete without acknowledging one of the most widespread plants — Mentha piperita — which is the botanical name for the well-known peppermint. It has the unusual feature of square stems and rootstocks that take root along the ground, enabling the plant to spread from one growing season to the next. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the aboveground parts and is used in many medicinal products, particularly cold remedies.

Our journey through the southern Appalachians has touched on but a few of the myriad plants with healing properties. In fact, the area is such a rich source of medicinal plants that the S. B. Penick Company, a botanical drug corporation headquartered in New York, maintained a branch office in Asheville, N.C., for many years.

Since prehistoric times, humans have turned to plants for healing, and the quest has not ended in disappointment. Modern pharmacology will continue to look for new sources of “green medicine,” and one place to which it will surely return is the lush green forests of the southern Appalachians. For there has been, and will continue to be, healing in the mountains.


Bioidentical Hormones, Waking Up From the Synthetic Hormone Nightmare

Shirley is 52, and suffering from menopausal symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia and mood disturbance. The next chance she had, Shirley asked her doctor for bioidentical hormones. Instead,  her doctor offered her a prescription for Lexapro, an SSRI antidepressant.  Shirley declined the prescription and ran out the door crying all the way home. A few days later, Shirley was sitting in my office asking, “Why won’t my doctor give me what I want, bioidentical hormones?”

Ghost Writing – A Shocking Medical Scandal

I explained to Shirley that her doctor’s opinion is shaped by misleading information in medical journals corrupted by a technique called medical ghostwriting, a shocking scandal uncovered by  Senator Grassley’s Committee.(1)  In this sinister practice, the prestigious name of an academic MD “opinion leader” appears as author.  However, unknown to the reader, the article is actually written by the drug company’s paid-for-hire writers.  Grassley discovered that sixty articles on women’s hormones were ghostwritten, downplaying the adverse effects of synthetic hormones, and casting doubts about bioidentical hormones.  Medical ghostwriting is scientific misconduct and fraud which harms society and corrupts the medical literature.

A Brief History of Synthetic Hormones – Re-Living the Nightmare

Let’s review a short history of synthetic hormone replacement as brought to you by the Drug Industry. (2)  Many people have forgotten about the disaster of DES, Diethylstilbestrol, the first synthetic hormone invented in 1938.  This carcinogenic, monster hormone was approved by the FDA and given to millions of women from 1940 until it was banned in 1975 when it was shown carcinogenic.  The first report of cervical cancer in the daughters of DES treated women was published in April 1971 in the New England Journal of Medicine.(3-4)

Next, the Drug Industry invented Premarin, a horse estrogen isolated from the urine of pregnant horses.   Available since FDA approval in 1942, Premarin has caused an estimated 15,000 cases of endometrial cancer, representing the largest epidemic of serious iatrogenic disease ever reported.(5-8)    One might think this would be the end of any drug.   However Premarin was promptly rehabilitated with the addition of another synthetic hormone, a progestin, to prevent endometrial cancer.  Thus, in 1995, Prempro was born, a synthetic hormone pill containing both Premarin (the horse estrogen) and Provera (the progestin).  Again, this was FDA approved,  thought safe and handed out freely to millions of women.

However, storm clouds soon appeared on the horizon when four large scale studies showed increased breast cancer and heart disease from this estrogen-progestin combination pill.  The  Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, published in 2000, showed an eight fold increase in breast cancer for estrogen-progestin users.(9)  The Swedish Record Review, published in 1996, had a fourfold increase in breast cancer with progestin use.(10)  The Million Woman study, published in Lancet in 2003, had a fourfold increase in breast cancer for estrogen-progestin combination users compared to estrogen alone users.(11)  The brakes came on to this synthetic hormone experiment in 2002 with the JAMA publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), an NIH funded study terminated early because of increased breast cancer and heart disease in the estrogen-progestin users.(12)

Abandoning the Synthetic Hormone Ship

Two important things happened after this 2002 WHI study was published.  Smart women abandoned synthetic hormones and switched in large number to bioidentical hormones, producing an immediate decline in breast cancer rates of about nine per cent.(13,14)  A second important thing happened.  Apparently, women have decided to turn to lawyers to protect them, since the FDA has been unable to do so.  Thirteen thousand women have filed cases in court claiming synthetic hormones caused their breast cancer.  These cases are slowly working their way through the court system, and the jury is still out, so stay tuned.(15)

Dispelling the Myths and Misconceptions

Over the years, I have compiled a list of myths and misinformation commonly encountered about bioidentical hormones in newspapers and magazines.  Here are a few of them, followed by the corrections.  The misinformation is in italics, with the correct information to follow.

Myth Number One: “The term bioidentical hormone is undefined and has no meaning.”

This is incorrect.  Bioidentical is a term which is defined as having the exact same chemical structure as hormones found naturally in the human body.   Bioidentical Hormones are the ones circulating in your blood stream right now.

Myth Number Two: “There is no proof that Bioidentical Hormones are safer and more effective than synthetic hormones…All of the evidence that we have suggests that all of these hormones should be painted with the same brush,”

This is incorrect and misleading.  As we have seen in the above short history of synthetic hormones, there exists a large body of science showing that synthetic chemically altered hormones cause cancer and heart disease.(9-14)  On the other hand, medical studies have found bioidentical hormones are safe with no increase in breast cancer or heart disease compared to non-hormone users. (33-41)  An excellent review of this medical science can be found in a 2009 article by Kent Holtorf MD in Postgraduate Medicine. (16)

Myth Number Three: “Bioidentical Hormones are not FDA approved.”

This is blatantly incorrect.  There are twenty or so FDA approved bioidentical hormone preparations widely available at corner drug stores. Here are a few examples: Vivelle-Dot, Estrace,  Climara, Prometrium, Androgel , etc.

Myth Number Four: “Bioidentical Hormones made by compounding pharmacies are Non-FDA approved.”

This is not only incorrect, it is misleading and deceptive.  Compounding pharmacies are regulated at the state level, and do not fall under FDA jurisdiction.   So, of course compounding is not FDA approved.  No FDA approval is required or even desired.  Your local hospital pharmacy is a compounding pharmacy that makes up life saving medication such as IV antibiotics with no FDA oversight or “approval”.  The FDA approval process is designed for manufactured capsules and tablets, and is impractical and unnecessary for compounded medications prepared to order by hand.   Are we going to reject IV antibiotics from the hospital pharmacy because these are non-FDA approved compounded medication?  Of course not.  Compounding is here to stay.

Myth Number Five: “Unless a woman has symptoms of hot flashes and night sweats, she doesn’t need hormones.”

This is incorrect.  In addition to night sweats and hot flashes, there are many other valid symptoms of hormone deficiency such as insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, menopausal arthritis, evaporative dry eye, anxiety, panic, mood disorder, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido and post hysterectomy.  These are all good indications for prescribing bioidentical hormones. (17-25)

Myth Number Six:  “The idea that Menopause is a Hormone Deficiency Disease was disproven, and the idea that hormone replacement rejuvenates youth, or prevents degenerative diseases is also disproven….Hormones decline with age, and is normal and does not require treatment.”

This is incorrect. There is no question that hormonal decline is a health risk. Three separate studies have shown low testosterone in males carries a 40% increase in mortality.(26-28)  Studies in females show the same findings, with low hormone levels in women after hysterectomy associated with increased mortality. (29)(30)  Hormonal decline is a direct cause of degenerative diseases of aging, all of which may be prevented or partially reversed by replenishing hormone levels, a vastly more effective treatment which competes directly with the Drug Industry.(42-46)

Myth Number Seven: “Hot flashes and sweats in menopausal women can be treated with SSRI antidepressants.  They don’t need to use hormones.”

This is not only wrong, it is criminal. The use of SSRI antidepressants for menopausal symptoms is NOT FDA approved, and is a cruel mistreatment and medical victimization of women.  This practice should be halted immediately.  Studies of SSRI drugs show they are no better than placebo for most cases of depression(31), and they are not much better than placebo for menopausal hot flashes. (32)  Synthetic hormones are bad enough, they cause cancer and heart disease.  SSRI drugs like Lexepro,  Effexor and Pristiq are even worse; they are chemically addictive with horrendous withdrawal effects.  Avoid becoming a medical victim.  Stay away.

In Conclusion:

It is time to awaken from the nightmare of synthetic hormones, known for decades to cause cancer and heart disease.  You can put lipstick on a pig, and it is still a pig.  The drug industry can spin, deceive, and misleading the medical journals and media.  Yet, after all the lies and propaganda, synthetic hormones remain monsters that should be avoided.   Smart women have made the switch to safer and more effective bioidentical hormones.  The future of medicine is your choice to make.  Hopefully, this article has awakened you to the natural choice.

For More Information, here are some leaders in the field of bioidentical hormones providing trustworthy information in books, articles and web sites:  David Brownstein MD, Kenton Bruice MD,  John Crisler DO, Kent Holtorf MD, Steve Hotze MD, Sangeeta Pati MD, CW Randolph MD, Ron Rothenberg MD, Erika Schwartz MD,  Jonathan Wright MD, and Joseph Mc Wherter MD.

Disclaimer: This article is for educational purposes and not intended as medical advice, and it is recommended you work closely with a knowledgeable physician before making any decisions regarding hormone treatment.  Please feel free to share this article with your doctor.

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road, Suite 190
Davie, Florida 33314
(954) 792-4663 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting (954) 792-4663 end_of_the_skype_highlighting

Author Biography: Jeffrey Dach MD is founder of  the TrueMedMD clinic in Davie, Florida specializing in bioidentical hormones and natural thyroid.  He is the author of the book, Natural Medicine 101 available on Amazon, and offers a free email newsletter.


(1)  Ghostwriting in Medical Literature Minority Staff Report 111th Congress United States Senate Committee on Finance Sen. Charles E. Grassley, Ranking Member June 24, 2010

(2)  Menopause, as Brought to You by Big Pharma By NATASHA SINGER and DUFF WILSON Published: December 12, 2009

(3)  Adenocarcinoma of the Vagina — Association of Maternal Stilbestrol Therapy with Tumor Appearance in Young Women.  Arthur L. Herbst, M.D., Howard Ulfelder, M.D., and David C. Poskanzer, M.D. N Engl J Med 1971; 284:878-881April 22, 1971

(4)  Epidemiologic Evidence for Adverse Effects of DES Exposure during Pregnancy Theodore Colton and E. Robert Greenberg The American Statistician Vol. 36, No. 3, Part 2: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Statistics and the Environment (Aug., 1982), pp. 268-272

(5)  The Epidemic of Endometrial Cancer:A Commentary Hershel Jick et al.Am J Public Health 70:264-267, 1980.

(6) Increased Risk of Endometrial Carcinoma among Users of Conjugated Estrogens.  Harry K. Ziel, M.D., and William D. Finkle, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 1975; 293:1167-1170 December 4, 1975

(7)  N Engl J Med. 1979 Jan 4;300(1):9-13. Endometrial cancer and estrogen use. Report of a large case-control study. Antunes CM, Strolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Davies JL, Tonascia JA, Brown C, Burnett L, Rutledge A, Pokempner M, Garcia R.

The dose-effect relationship between ‘unopposed’ oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk.Key TJ, Pike MC.
Br J Cancer. 1988 Feb;57(2):205-12.

(9)   Menopausal Estrogen and Estrogen-Progestin Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer Risk. Catherine Schairer, PhD et al.  JAMA. 2000;283(4):485-491.

see also
Cancer incidence and mortality in women receiving estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy—long-term follow-up of a Swedish cohort.  Ingemar Persson et al. International Journal of Cancer Volume 67, Issue 3, pages 327–332, 29 July 1996

(11)    Lancet. 2003 Aug 9;362(9382):419-27. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators.

Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women
Principal Results From the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial
Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators JAMA. 2002;288:321-333.

(13) The Decrease in Breast-Cancer Incidence in 2003 in the United States. Peter M. Ravdin, Ph.D., M.D et al. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1670-1674 April 19, 2007.  A comparison of incidence rates in 2001 with those in 2004 (omitting the years in which the incidence was changing) showed that the decrease in annual age-adjusted incidence was 8.6% .

(14) Breast Cancer Incidence and Hormone Replacement Therapy in Canada by Prithwish De, C. Ineke Neutel, Ivo Olivotto and Howard Morrison. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2010) . This drop occurred concurrently with a 9.6% decline in the incidence rate of breast cancer

(15) Pfizer Said to Pay $330 Million to Settle Prempro Lawsuits Claiming Cancer By Jef Feeley – Feb 9, 2011 4:42 PM ET

Postgraduate Medicine: Volume 121: No.1 January 2009. The Bioidentical Hormone Debate:Are Bioidentical Hormones (Estradiol, Estriol, and Progesterone) Safer or More Efficacious than Commonly Used Synthetic Versions in Hormone Replacement Therapy? Kent Holtorf, MD

(17) Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;58(6):529-34.  Efficacy of estradiol for the treatment of depressive disorders in perimenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. by Soares CN et al.

(18) Neurology 2001;57:605-612, 2001 American Academy of Neurology  High-dose estradiol improves cognition for women with AD Results of a randomized study by S. Asthana, MD et al.

(19) Estradiol reduces anxiety- and depression-like behavior of aged female mice by Alicia A. Walf and Cheryl A. Frye  Neuroscience

(20)   Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Sep;52(9):2594-8. Aromatase inhibitors and the syndrome of arthralgias with estrogen deprivation. Felson DT, Cummings SR.

(21)  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 May;178(5):1002-9.When does estrogen replacement therapy improve sleep quality? Polo-Kantola P et al.

(22) “Menopausal Arthritis” May Develop in Women Receiving Estrogen-Depleting Treatments News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD CME Author: Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd

(23) Women treated with aromatase inhibitors often experience joint pain and musculoskeletal aching: severe enough, in some cases, to make them stop the treatment.

(24) Maturitas. 2001 Jan 31;37(3):209-12. Treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca with topical androgen. by Worda C et al.

(25) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44: E-Abstract 2450. Treatment of Dry Eye with a Transdermal 3% Testosterone Cream by C.G. Connor.

(26)  Eur Heart J (2010) 31 (12): 1494-1501. Low serum testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of mortality in a population-based cohort of men aged 20–79, Robin Haring et al.

(27)  Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Men European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Prospective Population Study (Circulation. 2007;116:2694-2701.)

(28)  Vol. 166 No. 15, Aug 14/28, 2006 Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality in Male Veterans Molly M. Shores, MD et al.  Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1660-1665.

(29)  Menopause. 2009 Jan–Feb; 16(1): 15–23. Increased cardiovascular mortality following early bilateral oophorectomy.  Cathleen M. Rivera, MD et al.

(30) Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;113(5):1027-37.Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy and long-term health outcomes in the nurses’ health study. Parker WH et al.

(31)  Antidepressant Drug Effects and Depression Severity A Patient-Level Meta-analysis. Jay C. Fournier et al. JAMA. 2010;303(1):47-53.

(32)  Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women A Randomized Controlled Trial Ellen W. Freeman, PhD; JAMA. 2011;305(3):267-274

(33)  Int J Cancer. 2005 Apr 10;114(3):448-54. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Fournier A et al.

(34)  Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 January; 107(1): 103–111. Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study. Agnès Fournier et al.

(35)  J Clin Oncol. 2009 Nov 1;27(31):5138-43.  Estrogen-progestagen menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: does delay from menopause onset to treatment initiation influence risks? Fournier A et al.

(36)  Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2007 Sep;68(4):241-50. Epub 2007 Jul 24. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopause: a reappraisal. Caufriez A.

Prim Care. 2008 Dec;35(4):669-705. Hormones in wellness and disease prevention: common practices, current state of the evidence, and questions for the future. Schwartz ET, Holtorf K.

(38)   Point/Counterpoint:The Case for Bioidentical Hormones by Steven F. Hotze, M.D. Donald P. Ellsworth, M.D. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 13 Number 2 Summer 2008 p43.

(39)  Could transdermal estradiol + progesterone be a safer postmenopausal HRT? A review.  L’hermite M, Simoncini T, Fuller S, Genazzani AR. Maturitas. 2008 Jul-Aug;60(3-4):185-201.

(40)  A Comprehensive Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Bioidentical Hormones for the Management of Menopause and Related Health Risks Deborah Moskowitz, ND Altern Med Rev 2006;11(3):208-223

(41)  March 16, 2009 The Truth About Hormone Therapy Wall Street Journal By Erika Schwartz , Kent Holtorf , and David Brownstein

(42)   Current Molecular Medicine 2005, 5, 29-38 205 Telomerase Therapeutics for Degenerative Diseases. By Calvin B. Harley.

(43)  Molecular and Cellular Biology, June 2000, p. 3764-3771, Vol. 20, No. 11 Induction of hTERT Expression and Telomerase Activity by Estrogens in Human Ovary Epithelium Cells. Silvia Misiti, et al.,

(44)  Estrogen Activates Telomerase. Satoru Kyo et al.  Cancer Res December 1, 1999 59; 5917

(45)  Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002 September; 66(3): 407–425. Human Telomerase and Its Regulation. Yu-Sheng Cong et al.

(46)  Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice by Ronald A. DePinho et al.  Nature November 2010.

Jeffrey Dach MD
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