Athletics, autism, ADHD… the magnesium connection

Magnesium orotate is a mineral salt normally found in the body in small amounts. Orotate (orotic acid) is a raw material from which the body makes the genetic substances RNA and DNA.

Magnesium is an essential element that serves as a cofactor for several hundred enzymes made in the body. These enzymes play important roles in the functioning of cells, nerves and muscles, in the regulation of body temperature, energy metabolism, in the synthesis of DNA and RNA, and in bone formation.

Magnesium deficiencies are widespread and various disorders have been linked to them, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, anxiety, dementia, migraines and osteoporosis. Magnesium supplements can prevent such deficiency symptoms and can also be helpful for asthma, chronic lung disease, and cardiac conditions. The optimum dietary magnesium intake for humans is still being disputed. Some authorities give a range of 30 to 400 mg/day depending upon age, while others believe it should be 400 to 1000 mg/day.

Magnesium orotate was introduced as a supplement by Dr. Hans Nieper, the innovative German physician, who used it to treat or prevent atherosclerosis, kidney failure, viral diseases, heart attacks, and blood clots. Nieper found that magnesium orotate has better bioavailability than other magnesium supplements.

Other researchers have found additional applications of magnesium orotate, including:

Recovery from heart attacks and heart surgery.

Patients who have used magnesium orotate after heart attacks or heart surgery have experienced improved survival of tissue damaged by oxygen starvation, reduction of premature heartbeats, increase in exercise capacity, correction of magnesium depletion, improvements in skin appearance, and reduction in calcification of damaged heart tissue.

Athletic performance.

A 1998 study reported that “… 23 competitive triathletes competing in an event consisting of a 500-meter swim, a 20-km bicycle race, and a 5-km run were studied after 4-week supplementation with placebo or [5.7 g/day of] Mg orotate. … Swimming, cycling, and running times decreased in the Mg-orotate group compared with the controls.”

Autism and ADHD.

In a recent study of 33 autistic children, magnesium and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) reduced autistic symptoms in 23 children. A 2004 study of 52 hyperexcitable children showed that six months of magnesium and vitamin B6 reduced hyperactivity, hyperexcitability, and aggressiveness in all treated patients.

For a more detailed discussion of magnesium orotate and the medical studies that support its use, see the article at:

Ale is good, make no bones about it

A beer a day could keep brittle bones at bay. That’s because beer is rich in silicon, an element that has been linked to bone health. But what type of beer should you drink?

Previous studies have shown that silicon can aid bone growth, and that moderate beer drinking is linked to increased bone density. Now Charles Bamforth and Troy Casey at the University of California, Davis, have discovered how much silicon each type of beer contains.

They analyzed 100 beers from around the world and found that the brews contained between 6.4 and 56 milligrams of silicon per litre, with an average of 29 milligrams per liter. Looking at the silicon levels in beer’s ingredients, they found that most of it comes from the husks of malted barley.

The pair found that lighter-colored beers made from pale malted barley and hops, such as pale ales, are richest in silicon, while low-alcohol beers contain the least, along with stouts, porters and wheat beers.

Beer versus wine

Jonathan Powell at the UK Medical Research Council’s Human Nutrition Research Unit in Cambridge says that the results confirm previous work by his group showing that beer is a good source of bioavailable silicon, and that it improves bone mineral density in a way not seen with wine or spirits.

In 2004, his team reported that moderate beer drinkers had better bone density than non-drinkers, although excessive consumers had the worst bone mineral density of all (Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, DOI: 10.1359/JBMR.0301225).

However, Catherine Collins, a dietician at St George’s Healthcare National Health Service Trust in London, says that while the silicon from beer is useful for bone density, calcium found in foods such as dairy products does more to prevent osteoporosis.

For additional information on dietary sources of silicon:

Magnesium Supplement Helps Boost Brainpower

New research finds that an increase in brain magnesium improves learning and memory in young and old rats. The study, published in the January 28th issue of the journal Neuron, suggests that increasing magnesium intake may be a valid strategy to enhance cognitive abilities and supports speculation that inadequate levels of magnesium impair cognitive function, leading to faster deterioration of memory in aging humans.

Diet can have a significant impact on cognitive capacity. Identification of dietary factors which have a positive influence on synapses, the sites of communication between neurons, might help to enhance learning and memory and prevent their decline with age and disease. Professor Guosong Liu, Director of the Center for Learning and Memory at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, led a study examining whether increased levels of one such dietary supplement, magnesium, boosts brain power.

“Magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of many tissues in the body, including the brain and, in an earlier study, we demonstrated that magnesium promoted synaptic plasticity in cultured brain cells,” explains Dr. Liu. “Therefore it was tempting to take our studies a step further and investigate whether an increase in brain magnesium levels enhanced cognitive function in animals.”

Because it is difficult to boost brain magnesium levels with traditional oral supplements, Dr. Liu and colleagues developed a new magnesium compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) that could significantly increase magnesium in the brain via dietary supplementation. They used MgT to increase magnesium in rats of different ages and then looked for behavioral and cellular changes associated with memory.

“We found that increased brain magnesium enhanced many different forms of learning and memory in both young and aged rats,” says Dr. Liu. A close examination of cellular changes associated with memory revealed an increase in the number of functional synapses, activation of key signaling molecules and an enhancement of short- and long-term synaptic processes that are crucial for learning and memory.

The authors note that the control rats in this study had a normal diet which is widely accepted to contain a sufficient amount of magnesium, and that the observed effects were due to elevation of magnesium to levels higher than provided by a normal diet.

“Our findings suggest that elevating brain magnesium content via increasing magnesium intake might be a useful new strategy to enhance cognitive abilities,” explains Dr. Liu. “Moreover, half the population of industrialized countries has a magnesium deficit, which increases with aging. This may very well contribute to age-dependent memory decline; increasing magnesium intake might prevent or reduce such decline.”